Keratoconus is a progressive disease that is characterized by gradual steepening and thinning of the cornea in both eyes.
It affects ages between puberty and 35 years and is caused by a combination of genetic and environmental factors. It typically presents with vision distortion and patients give a history of frequent change in glasses prescription. Soft contact lenses can initially provide satisfactory vision but this tends to deteriorate with time making the rigid gas-permeable lens wear mandatory.
Keratoconus is diagnosed with corneal topography.
The mainstay of treatment is the rigid gas-permeable lens wear that improves the vision in most cases. Cornea cross-linking is a procedure that is effective in increasing the corneal stability and slowing down the disease progression. Advanced cases require implantation of intrastromal corneal rings or corneal transplants.