Keratoconus is a progressive disease that is characterized by gradual steepening and thinning of the cornea in both eyes.

It affects ages between puberty and 35 years and is caused by a combination of genetic and environmental factors. It typically presents with vision distortion and patients give a history of frequent change in glasses prescription. Soft contact lenses can initially provide satisfactory vision but this tends to deteriorate with time making the rigid gas-permeable lens wear mandatory.

Keratoconus is diagnosed with corneal topography.

The mainstay of treatment is the rigid gas-permeable lens wear that improves the vision in most cases. Cornea cross-linking is a procedure that is effective in increasing the corneal stability and slowing down the disease progression. Advanced cases require implantation of intrastromal corneal rings or corneal transplants.


Healthy cornea (left) and keratoconic cornea with the characteristic bulge(right).