Blepharospasm is a disabling condition characterized by frequent involuntary eyelid blinking. It can severely affect the patient’s life quality.

There is a genetic component to blepharospasm but there are also environmental factors that contribute to its presentation, such as ocular irritation and dry eye syndrome.

Hemifacial spasm is a condition that is characterized by involuntary facial movement and spasms that affect only one side of the face. It is most commonly caused by compression of the facial nerve by either a dilated vessel or a mass. This condition requires brain imaging and treatment by the neurosurgeons.

Treatment of blepharospasm includes intensive lubrication of the eyes to eliminate any dry eye component that might exacerbate the symptoms. Botulinum toxin injections into the overacting muscles reduce the symptoms significantly but need to be repeated every 3 months. In more severe cases, eyelid surgery with partial removal of the contracting muscle is indicated.