Macular hole is a round defect in the center of the macula. It is caused either due to trauma or can be in most cases idiopathic.
It is classified into four stages and in stages 3 and 4 the visual acuity is severely impaired as the hole takes up the full retinal thickness.
Initial symptoms include blurred central vision and wavy lines. At late stages, a central scotoma develops making reading and recognizing faces impossible.
Treatment of macular hole includes surgical removal of the vitreous and replacement with air or gas bubble. The patient maintains a specific postoperative posture with head facing down for 2 days. Success rate with full hole closure is reported to reach 93-100%.